Thursday, October 17, 2019

The arduous life of a gambier coolie in early Singapore

If you had been following my blog, you may come to realise that gambier is often mentioned in many articles. Why this fixation with gambier?
Was it because my forebears were gambier farmers? Was it because the Hillview region and Princess Elizabeth area, on which my blog is based, were all gambier farms in the past? Was it because most people today don't know about it? In a way, perhaps it's all these reasons.

A gambier processing facility, called a Bangsal, in early Singapore.
Note the coolies bringing in their harvest of leaves.
(Photo source: National Archives Singapore)

My great-great grandfather, Mr Chua Chin Huat, a Teochew Catholic, started his gambier farm in the Chua Chu Kang area beside the Peng Siang River in the 1830s. He was the Kangchu and the farmland was called Chua Chu Kang, named after him. By 1855, it was recorded that he had 650,000 gambier plants and 105,000 vines of pepper on his farm.

Records also showed that he had to pay quit rent to the municipal government for 30 plots on his farm. This would imply that he might have up to 30 tenanted farmers, or coolies, working for him on his land. The coolies and tenant farmers lived a hard and impoverished life, some of whom were indentured labourers.

Gambir and pepper agriculture died out in Singapore by the end of the 19th century. Surprisingly, gambier farming still exist in neighbouring Indonesia but little in the way of life has changed for the gambier farmers today.

The flower of the Gambier plant, Uncaria Gambir.

The leaves are where the gambier extract are derived.

What is gambier?
Gambier is an extract from the leaves of a plant, Uncaria Gambir, which is only found in the Malay Archipelago. The processed extract was long used by the Chinese for medicines and for chewing the betel nut quid. Later, it was discovered that the tannic acid from the gambier plant was an excellent agent for use in tanning leather, and was very much cheaper than using European oak tannins. This discovery caused a boom in the the gambier trade with an insatiable demand from Europe. Today, gambier extract is used mainly for cosmetics and dyeing.

Raw gambier extract. Gambier plants can been in the background.

Gambier was traditionally carried out on a shift agriculture basis. When the soil had been exhausted of its nutrients, the farmers will move to a new plot to grow new gambier plants. The old plots would be used for growing pepper, with the old processed gambier leaves used as fertiliser.

Gambier is an astringent plant, which means that its potency will diminish quickly and has to be processed immediately on harvesting.
The following photos show how gambier is extracted and processed. It is still done by small farm holders through a long laborious method that has hardly changed since the 19th century.

The gambier leaves are harvested when is it between 4-6 months old.

This is a typical Bangsal, a Malay word for Shed. It's where the gambier is processed.
It will contain a huge kuali, or cooking pot, where the leaves are cooked.
Usually located near a stream where copious water is available.
There may be many bangsals located within the same farm.
The gambier leaves are harvested and brought directly to the bangsal for processing.
Note the similarity to the 19th century picture, at top,
and the bamboo basket which has not changed in design.

The gambier leaves are stuffed tightly into a wicker basket.

The entire basket of gambir leaves is boiled until the leaves turns brown. 

The cooked leaves are removed from the boil and tied into a bundle for the next stage.

The hot bundle is placed into a press to extract the juice from the leaves.
Once the juice is extracted, the leaves are re-boil for a second pressing.

Today, a hydraulic press is used. The only advance since the early days.
Previously, heavy rocks were placed on top and pressure was applied manually with a long pole.

The gambir extract is collected and poured out into trays and left to dry.

When the extract becomes a semi-solid compound, it is formed into bricks.

The bricks are left to dry in the sun. This is the end of the raw process.
From these dried bricks, it is sold to be further processed into other products.

Monday, October 7, 2019

An anecdotal history of Hillview Part 2. 1945-1955.

The Post War Years 1945 to 1955.

The Japanese Occupation of Singapore ended on 5th September 1945.
Responsibility for the recovery of Singapore now laid with British Military Administration. They were faced with the difficult task of administering and maintaining law and order in a country that had been ravaged during the war years. Priority was given to food supply, health, employment, and infrastructural repairs, especially of the Singapore Harbour. In April 1946, Singapore was declared a  Crown Colony and governed directly by civilian administrators.

At Hillview, the Ford Motors, Hume Pipes and the Cold Storage Dairy Farm were returned to their pre-war owners. To aid post-war recovery efforts, foreign companies willing to invest were given priority, generous tax breaks and incentives to set up in Singapore.
As a result, two American companies were offered land at Hillview to start production facilities. These were National Carbon of Ohio, and the William Wrigley Company of Chicago.

In 1948, National Carbon set up a production plant to manufacture dry cell batteries under the 'Eveready' brand. National Carbon (Eastern) Ltd would be later renamed Union Carbide Co Ltd.
The Wm. Wrigley Company set up a factory called Malayan Guttas Ltd.
This factory manufactured the famous Wrigley Chewing Gum and was to become the largest chewing gum manufacturer to supply all of the British Commonwealth. It was also the major sourcing office for Gutta Percha, a natural rubber-like material used for making chewing gum, golf balls and dental inserts. Gutta Percha was a tree found only in the Malay Archipelago.

An aerial view of The National Carbon factory and Malayan Guttas factory at Hillview in 1950.
(Click photo for detailed view)

In order to build these two factories, the Singapore Rural Board created and paved two new roads leading to the factory sites. These were Hillview Road and Hillview Avenue.

Hillview Road junction with Upper Bukit Timah Road 1956.
(Photo source: National Archives Singapore)
Hillview Road was upgraded from a gravel track, a desire path, that was already in use since the days of the gambier farms of the 19th century. Hillview Road was to become the arterial road that connects to Upper Bukit Timah Road. A new road, Hillview Avenue, was created leading to the Malayan Guttas factory.
This was the first official application of the term 'Hillview' for the area. The name Hillview was chosen simply because there was a grand private retreat and country house called Hillview Estate nearby.

Trivia:  Click here to find out more about the colonial Hillview Estate and its location.

1947, 27th November.
A significant event happened in far away England that would have a direct impact on a little obscure piece of farmland at Upper Bukit Timah.
On this day, Princess Elizabeth, heir to the British throne, married Prince Philip of Greece.
To celebrate the event, the Singapore Municipal Commissioners created a Princess Elizabeth Wedding Celebration Fund to solicit donations from the public as a gift from Singapore. This gift would comprise a specially designed golden casket and the building of a tuberculosis hospital to be named after Princess Elizabeth. Almost one million dollars was raised for the royal gift.

The creation of the Princess Elizabeth Estates
After much disagreement and debates, the plan for a tuberculosis hospital was dropped in favour of building low-cost dwellings to alleviate the acute housing shortage problem. Two hundred units of Workmen's Dwellings, also called Artisan Quarters, were proposed to be built, one in the city and the other in the rural area. These two new estates were to be known as 'Princess Elizabeth Estates'.
The building project was undertaken by the Singapore Improvement Trust (SIT) and the first estate of a hundred units was completed by 1950 at Farrer Park. It was called the Princess Elizabeth Flats.

Building of the second rural estate was delayed due to public objections to its location. The proposed site was along Dunearn Road, in front of the Singapore Turf Club. After vehement protests from the neighbourhood residents, who were very much against building of a low-cost 'slum' in their vicinity, the site was declared 'not suitable for public housing' and a new site beside the Reformatory at Clementi Road was proposed as an alternative.

However, at the end of 1948, in a quid pro quo deal with the colonial government, the French-Belgian mortgage bank, Credit Foncier d'Extreme Orient, donated to the Wedding Fund, twelve acres of land which they held, for building the second estate. This land was the former failed gambier farm at Hillview Avenue opposite the National Carbon factory.

Princess Elizabeth Park Estate at Bukit Timah
Now with the donated land, and with $400,000 in hand from the Wedding Fund, the SIT proceeded with the building of the second estate in 1951. This was to be called Princess Elizabeth Park.

The plan was to build 84 single storey 2 bedroom units, complete with kitchen, bathroom with modern sanitation (flush toilet!), running water and electricity supply.
In comparison to what most of the general population had at that time, with their village houses and kampongs, this was considered ultra modern, especially for a rural area like Hillview!
In addition, there were to be 16 single storey shophouses to serve the estate. The shophouses were to be rented out for provision shops, coffee-shops, a dhoby, a tailor, a clinic and even a charcoal shop.

A rare vintage picture of Princess Elizabeth Park Estate being constructed in 1951.

The single storey Artisan Quarters at Princess Elizabeth Park.

As the cost of land and construction came from donations, the SIT was obliged to charge a very low monthly rental for the Artisan Quarters. Twenty-four units were allocated for government civil servants while the rest were rented out to the general public.

In addition to the building of the Artisan Quarters, the SIT decided to build an additional eight multi-storey blocks of flats as an extension to the estate. These comprised 6 blocks of 3 & 4-room flats 3-storeys high, and 2 blocks of 3-room flats 7 storeys high.
These additional 8 blocks of flats were not subsidised through the Wedding Fund but was borne entirely by the SIT.  These flats were offered to the public but priority was given if you provided proof that you worked within 2 miles radius of the estate.
Thus, many of the applicants were employees from Union Carbide, Malayan Guttas, Hume Pipes and Ford Motors. It became a very close knit community as a result of many tenants being co-workers.

The multi-storey blocks built by SIT forming part of Princess Elizabeth Park Estate.

The artisan quarters and flats were all ready for occupation by February 1952.
A new road called Princess Elizabeth Drive was created to run through the estate from Hillview Avenue. (The 'Princess' was dropped after Singapore's Independence and the roadwas renamed Elizabeth Drive).)

One of the strangest arrangement for the new estate was the naming of the 'streets' within the estate.
There were actually no streets, just walkways and footpaths! Yet, these walkways were given official street names. So there was Princess Anne Hill, Prince Charles Rise, Philip Walk and Clarence Walk.
In the above picture, you can see the footpaths leading to the blocks. These were Prince Charles Rise in front and Princess Anne Hill at the rear.

Princess Elizabeth Park Estate had its fair share of teething problems in the early years. Residents wrote regularly to the press and the Rural Board raising many grievances like the lack of bus services, the lack of nearby schools, the lack of Police presence, the lack of a public telephone, there was no market and no medical services. The estate was isolated in a remote region of Bukit Timah and residents felt the Rural Board had neglected them.

With support from the SIT, the residents organised a committee to run a Community Centre. 
SIT allocated a shophouse, No 8 Clarence Walk, for this purpose and the residents raised $500 to purchase sports and games equipment. The Community Centre was opened in November 1952 by Mrs JC Lee, the wife of the SIT Estates Manager.

Mrs JC Lee opening the new Community Centre at No 8 Clarence Walk

In February 1953, the  Green Bus Company started a route from Queens Street that terminated at the car park at the end of Elizabeth Drive. This was their bus service No.5.

Green Bus No.5 service at the terminus at Princess Elizabeth Estate. Taken in 1955.
The car park was paved with red laterite and gravel.
In 1953, flushed with the success of their deal with the colonial government, Credit Foncier d'Extreme Orient, the French-Belgian mortgage bank, again donated a further 5 acres of land at Hillview Avenue for the building of a primary school for the residents.

Work to build the school began almost immediately and the school was named Princess Elizabeth Estate School. It was located at the very end of Princess Elizabeth Drive, beside the bus terminus.
By Sept 1954, the school building was completed and the first cohort, which had until then been using the facilities at Bukit Panjang English School, moved to their new school.
Princess Elizabeth Estate School was officially opened on 10 January 1955 with the beginning of the new school year. The first principal was Mr. M. Ponnusamy.

Princess Elizabeth Estate School at Elizabeth Drive.

To be continued.....
Part 3. The Industrialisation of Hillview 1951-1995.

If you missed part 1, you can read it at this link.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The next Grand Prix will be at Hillview Avenue.

   The prestigious Singapore Airlines Formula One Grand Prix, the F1 night race, is now trending all over the social media as Singapore hosts the spectacle once again this weekend at the Marina Bay street circuit.

 Ask any die-hard motor racing fan where Singapore's original Grand Prix were held and they'll tell you at the Sembawang Circuit at Upper Thomson Road. Yes, the original official Singapore Grand Prix was held annually from 1961 to 1973 at Old Upper Thomson Road. The first Grand Prix was sponsored by the then Ministry of Culture as part of their Visit Singapore - The Orient Year tourism drive and the race was flagged off by Yang di-Pertuan Negara, (later 1st President) Yusoff Ishak.

Singapore Grand Prix at the Sembawang Circuit 1960s.

Photo credit: National Archives Singapore

Backed by the government, the 1961-1973 Singapore Grand Prix were organised and run by the Singapore Motor Club.  This was a club of dedicated die-hard racing enthusiasts who had been organising ad-hoc races in Singapore right after the end of World War II. The club was formed in 1948.

Initially comprising mostly British expatriates and British Forces personnel, the SMC members were
very active and organised motor rallies, sprint races, speed trials and even 'economy' races where the winner was the one which used the least fuel. They conducted their races at places like The Gap Hill at Buona Vista, Admiralty Road at Naval Base and held the annual Hill Climb at Bukit Batok Hill.
Their favourite track was at Lim Chu Kang where they often held speed trials and sprint races.

Their vast experience in organising motor races led them to become the organiser of the 1960 Johore Grand Prix. With that successful race event under their belt, they were asked to organise Singapore's 1st official Grand Prix in 1961 at the Thomson course.

Prior to this, the club had their own private annual Grand Prix, which they termed Championships.
These were mainly speed trials and races along Lim Chu Kang Road.
In 1956, they were unable to make use of the Lim Chu Kang Road circuit and had to search for an alternative. After vetting all the possible sites, it was announced...

"The next Grand Prix will be along Hillview Avenue at Princess Elizabeth Estate"

The 'Grand Prix' that year was called the SMC Sprint Championship and had 40 competitors in both the motorcar as well as the motorcycle races. Hillview Circuit would run from the Hillview Circus to the Hairpin at the end of Hillview Avenue. In 1956, Hillview Avenue was a cul-de-sac which ended where today Hillview Villas estate is.
The circuit was only 3/4 mile long and drivers had to do 2 rounds of the circuit for a total of 1-1/2 miles.

The Hillview Avenue Circuit highlighted in yellow.
(Click on the picture for a detailed view)
Unfortunately, there is no record available of who won the race that year.
(The SMC had all their records destroyed by a fire at their HQ at Farrer Park)
The highlight of the 1956 race was the spectacular crash by Dr F. Marshall when his car rolled off the track at the Hairpin.

(Source: ST. 11 March 1956.)

The SMC Sprint Championship was held again the following year in July 1957 at the Hillview Circuit, now with 80 competitors for both motorcar and motorcycle races.
This time, the motorcycle race was won by Peter Chan on his 125cc Ducatti Sports Special, while the motorcar race was won by DEL Birch who set a new course record of 1 min 49 seconds.
There were no further grand prix at Hillview Avenue after 1957.

Peter Chan, winner of the 1957 Motorcycle Race, on his $3,000 125cc Ducatti Sports Special
(Source: Singapore Free Press 13 July 1957)

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

An anecdotal history of Hillview Part 1. 1840-1945.

(Click the picture for a detailed view)

When I first sat down to write this blog article, I thought of doing a history of Hillview from the present to as far back as records can tell. But I found it really hard going given the lack of resources and data available.

So instead, I'll pen a brief anecdotal history, in the grand tradition of Mr Charles Burton Buckley, from past to present, highlighting some important events with regard to the Hillview region and Princess Elizabeth Estate. Some of the details have already been published in various articles within this blog.  I welcome any reader to add to this chronology. You can comment in the section below (though I would appreciate that you leave a name and not as 'anonymous' please).

An anecdotal history of old times in Hillview Part 1.

John Thomson creates Upper Bukit Timah Road - 1844.
The earliest reference to the Hillview* area comes from John Turnbull Thomson, who was the Surveyor-General for the Straits Settlement in 1841, as well as being the Superintendent of Roads.
His major contributions to early Singapore were the drafting of the town map, the marine surveys of the harbour and the Straits of Singapore, and the construction of Horsburgh Lighthouse at Pedra Blanca. (Yes, Thomson Road is named for him)
* I use the term 'Hillview' here generically for convenience and ease of reference, even though it was not called as such till much later.  This would be the region approximately from Bukit Batok hill to the base of Bukit Gombak, opposite St Joseph Church.

In 1844, John Thomson proceeded to survey and to establish a road beyond Bukit Timah Village, which was then the northern-most known and accessible village in the interior of Singapore.
Going through the jungle on horseback, and taking four days to survey and map a route that had been used by the pepper and gambier farmers, he marked out what would become the basis for the future Upper Bukit Timah Road and Woodlands Road.

Picture of pepper/gambier farm, late 19th century Singapore.
Gambier and pepper were grown on the same trellis in rotation.

He recalls in his 1864 book, 'Glimpses into Life in the Far East', that despite the jungle, many areas were already studded with gambier farms. His survey indicated that the farms stretched for 3 to 4 miles from Bukit Timah Village. (Note: Gambier can also be spelt Gambir)

His initial destination was the Teochew village of Bokokang at Kranji, which was already a known kangkar along the Kranji River, but which was then only accessible by boat, via the Johore Straits.
You can read my account of this village at this link.

An extract from the 1846 map by John Thomson
showing his route to the north from Bukit Timah Village in 1844.

From Bokokang, he continued his overland survey till he reached the Straits of Johore, and thereby claimed the title of being the first person to make an overland crossing of Singapore Island.

1861 Crown Colony Survey.
The next time we hear of the Hillview region was in 1861 when a land survey of the gambier and pepper farms was done for tax assessment. This survey showed that the region below Bukit Gombak was divided into twelve large farms (or plantations).

Extract of the revised colonial survey 1872. (Source: NAS)

Interesting to note was that a large portion was owned by Pedro Tan No Kiah, who was a very prominent Chinese merchant and Kangchu in the early days of Singapore. He was also known for being the first local Chinese convert to Roman Catholicism, having been baptised at the Good Shepherd Church in 1839.

A surprise was in store for me when I tried to superimpose the 1861 survey over a modern Google map of the area. This was how it looked when I first tried it.

After some fine tuning and adjustments, I realised that the farm boundaries matched the major roads that are still found there today. These included Hillview Avenue and its branches, Hillview Road, Lorong Taluki, Jalan Remaja. The condominium plots also coincided and were bound within the farm boundaries.
I have coloured the farms in a 3D version (photo at top of page) and you can clearly see the divisions and gambier plots against the residential housing today.

Decline of gambier and the rise of rubber
Very little record exist after the 1861 survey but we know from local history that from the 1870s onwards, gambier farming was in decline in Singapore due to soil exhaustion and were slowly being replaced firstly by pineapple, and later, rubber trees.

Gambier was an ecologically destructive plant. Not only did it completely leached the soil of nutrients but processing the gambier itself required huge and constant amount of firewood. This led to massive deforestation of Singapore's primary forests.

It was estimated that gambier agriculture caused the loss of 75% of Singapore's forest cover by 1900.  Even back in 1856, the famous naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, had noted the incessant cutting of trees. Wallace was based at the St Joseph Church nearby and collected his nature specimens in the region surrounding the church. This would most likely have included the Hillview area.
In fact, colonial records remarked the existence of a sawmill in Hillview area, only that it was never mentioned exactly where it was, and no other corresponding record has ever been found yet to confirm its location.

It is very telling even from the 1861 (and a later 1872) survey that changes were already taking place in the gambier business. Farms were now in the name of non-resident owners like Tan Noh Kia and J. Jacobs, and that they were no longer referred to as "Chu Kangs". We know from local history that by the 1870s, most of the gambier farms were failing and many original farmer/owners were in debt to financiers from the city like Tan Noh Kiah, Seah Eu Chin, Tan Tock Seng and others.

Gambier farms all but died out by early 1900s and were frantically being replaced by the new wonder crop - rubber trees! All this as a result of the tenacious foresight of Henry Ridley, coupled with a boom in demand for rubber at the turn of the century when automobiles became the rage worldwide. Besides tyres, there was also a great demand for its use as insulation for electrical cables. However, rubber trees took about 10 years to mature enough to tap its latex. In the interim, plantation owners grew pineapples while waiting for the rubber trees to mature.

Hillview would be planted with pineapples while waiting for the rubber trees to mature.
It took between 5 to 10 years before the rubber trees can be tapped for latex.

The Singapore-Kranji Railway crosses Hillview.
In 1903, the Singapore-Kranji Railway, a.k.a. the Tank Road-Kranji Railway line was laid, running on the Bukit Timah side of Hillview.
The railway line from the city continued from Bukit Timah Station (BT Market today), ran across Bukit Timah Village towards the (Bukit Batok) hill where Ford and Hume factories would be built years later, and then ran alongside the main Upper Bukit Timah Road up to Bukit Panjang and beyond to Woodlands. At Hillview, the line was at the road level, where today the Hillview MRT Station would stand, and not on the raised bank that would be used by its later replacement, the KTM railway.

Look carefully and you can see traces on the ground left behind by the original Tank-Road-Kranji Railway Line. 
It ran alongside and parallel to the main road.  (RAF Photomap of 1950)
In 1932, the Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) Railway would replace the Tank Road-Kranji Railway Line. The KTM rail line was now on the opposite side of Upper Bukit Timah Road, coming from the new Bukit Timah Station, and at Hillview, the railway tracks would cross the main trunk road which necessitated the building of a truss bridge near Fuyong Estate, as well as a girder bridge over Hillview Road.

Pre-World War II period.
By the 1930s, one name became very prominent as a landowner in Hillview. This was Lee Kong Chian. By then, Lee had apparently obtained titles to the former gambier farms and began to convert these to planting of rubber trees.
It can be presumed, based on the agricultural business model of that time, that because Lee Rubber Co had bought up most of the gambier lands at Hillview, they would have planted rubber trees, and in the interim, fields of pineapples in between the rubber plots, until the rubber trees matured.

Examining the above 1950 photomap of Hillview, you can still see remnants of rubber trees on both sides of Upper Bukit Timah Road. The giveaway is the regular grid pattern that rubber trees were planted in. These are clearly seen beside Malayan Guttas, the bottom left at the Chinese kampong and the area above the Worker's Housing (Fuyong Estate) built by Lee Kong Chian.

A surviving remnant of Lee Rubber plantation can still be seen today on the southern ridge line of Bukit Gombak. These trees survived because they are located within the protected Mindef fence line.

A rubber plantation in Singapore in 1915. The workers are collecting latex for processing.

The Lee Rubber Co processing factory at Sungei Kadut.

In 1929, the Cold Storage Co Ltd bought 28 hectares of land that were formerly gambier farms across the road from Hillview.  They converted these farms into pastures and created a dairy to supply milk to the local market. This was called Cold Storage Dairy Farm.

Dairy Farm pastures were created from former gambier farms.

Hillview as part of the Bukit Timah Industrial area.
When Singapore was part of the British Crown Colony, industrialisation was furthest from the minds of the governors. Their interest laid first in using Singapore as a naval base, and equally important as an entrepot for shipping and trading in resources like tin, timber and rubber which came from the Malayan hinterland.
Given its laissez-faire environment, Bukit Timah Road slowly developed as the main industrial zone, ideally given that it was the only trunk route for resources from Malaya. Factories were set up all along the way and in 1938, Hillview saw its first major corporation.

In 1938, Australian subsidiary, Hume Pipes (Far East) Co Ltd secured a land grant of more than 20 hectares to set up a manufacturing plant at the 8th mile Upper Bukit Timah Road. It was to produce concrete-lined steel pipes for which it held a worldwide patent. Construction of the factory began in 1939 and was slated for completion by the end of 1941, when its manufacturing would shift from Dunman Estate to the Hillview plant.

Hume Pipes (Far East) Co Ltd

Ford Company (Malaya) Ltd

In 1939, Hume Pipes Co. leased 3-1/2 hectares of its land to a Canadian subsidiary of the American Ford Motors. This was to become Singapore's first motor car assembly plant, Ford Company of Malaya Ltd. Construction of the assembly plant began in 1940 and was completed in October, 1941.

An aerial view of Hume and Ford factories taken in the 1960s showing the extent of land occupied at Hillview.

The Japanese Invasion, the battle at Bukit Batok and the Syonan-to years.
On 8 December 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army made a stunning bombing raid on Singapore as part of its invasion of South East Asia.  War had arrived in Singapore and the Malay Peninsula. It was not until 8 February 1942 that the Imperial Japanese Army crossed into Singapore Island at the poorly defended Sarimbun beach.

The British defenders rushed to set up a blockade not far west from Bukit Gombak. This was the Kranji-Jurong Line, running from Bulim to Hong Kah, where today Tengah New Town is being built.
Strategically, this might have actually stopped the invasion in its tracks, except that the Line didn't hold. Due to massive mis-communication and poor command decisions, the units holding the Line started falling back, resulting in a domino effect and the complete breakdown of the blockade.

Sketch of the retreat of British forces from the 'Kranji-Jurong Line' 10th Feb 1942.

The 12th and 44th Brigades, at the north and south ends of the Line, retreated far behind the line, leaving the 15th Indian Brigade and the Special Reserves Battalion behind. These two hapless units managed to retreat on their own to an area south of Hillview, at the base of Hill 345 (Bukit Batok). From there, they were ordered to retake the Kranji-Jurong Line the following morning of 10th February 1942. However, the Japanese Army had already caught up with them and there were skirmishes along Jurong Road where the Japanese Army won more victories during the night.

On the morning of 10th Feb 1942, knowing that they were almost surrounded, the 15th Indians and the Special Reserves, tried to retreat to Ulu Pandan through Sleepy Valley. They walked right into an ambush, and tragically, of the 1400 men from both units, only 400 British troops survived and made it to Ulu Pandan. It was the biggest single day loss for the British Army fighting in Singapore.
You can read more details of this Battle of Sleepy Valley in this link.

By the morning of 11th Feb 1942, Bukit Timah Village was captured in a pincer movement by the Japanese Army coming down from both Jurong Road and Upper Bukit Timah Road.
With Bukit Timah Village secured, the Japanese commander, Lt-Gen Yamashita, moved his field headquarters to the newly-built Ford Motor Co factory at Hillview. From this location, Yamashita planned his final thrust. The British surrendered Singapore to the Imperial Japanese Army on 15th February 1942. The official surrender took place at the Ford Motors factory at Hillview.
With that, Singapore was re-named Syonan-to, The Light of the South.

At Hillview, the new factory of Ford Motors was seized and put into production by the Nissan Company to produce trucks for the army, while Hume Pipes was made to produce pipes and construction material for their war efforts.

The British Surrender Party marching up the road to the Ford Motors factory on Bukit Timah Road.
15 February 1942.

General Arthur Percival, GOC Malaya, signing the surrender document at the Ford Motors Factory board room.
Sitting opposite him is Lt-Gen Tomoyuki Yamashita, Commander of Japanese Forces.

After Singapore surrendered in 1942, the Japanese military decided to build a War Memorial dedicated to their fallen comrades-in-arms. The memorial was to be built on Hill 345 at Hillview where many of their comrades had fallen during the Battle for Singapore. (It was not called Bukit Batok hill at that time.)

In contravention of the Geneva Convention, Prisoners Of War were used to built the Memorial. British and Australian POWs were marched daily from Adam Road Camp, Sime Road Camp and Reformatory Road Camp to built both the road and the hilltop shrine. The shrine was called the Chureito Syonan. It was completed and dedicated on 7th December 1942.

The road from Upper Bukit Timah to the top of the Memorial
Today, it's called Lorong Sesuai but has been truncated due to road expansion.
The Japanese war memorial Chureito Syonan.
Picture taken during the dedication ceremony held on 7th December 1942.
The British troop were allowed to build a smaller memorial behind the shrine, a 15 foot Cross.
This was also dedicated on the same day as the Chureito Syonan.
7th December 1942, Dedication of the War Memorials at Bukit Batok.
The Japanese Military Government ruled Syonan-to (Singapore) until Japan surrendered at the end of World War II on 15 August 1945. Singapore was returned to the British under the British Military Administration.

To be continued...

Part 2 will take you from the years 1946 to 2019 and will cover the industrialisation of Hillview, the building of the housing estates and the conversion to a condominium belt.
Do watch out for it though I won't know when it will be publish!